# View Source gb_sets (stdlib v6.0)

Sets represented by general balanced trees.

This module provides ordered sets using Prof. Arne Andersson's General Balanced Trees. Ordered sets can be much more efficient than using ordered lists, for larger sets, but depends on the application.

The data representing a set as used by this module is to be regarded as opaque by other modules. In abstract terms, the representation is a composite type of existing Erlang terms. See note on data types. Any code assuming knowledge of the format is running on thin ice.

This module considers two elements as different if and only if they do not
compare equal (`==`

).

## Complexity Note

The complexity on set operations is bounded by either *O(|S|)* or *O(|T| *
log(|S|))*, where S is the largest given set, depending on which is fastest for
any particular function call. For operating on sets of almost equal size, this
implementation is about 3 times slower than using ordered-list sets directly.
For sets of very different sizes, however, this solution can be arbitrarily much
faster; in practical cases, often 10-100 times. This implementation is
particularly suited for accumulating elements a few at a time, building up a
large set (> 100-200 elements), and repeatedly testing for membership in the
current set.

As with normal tree structures, lookup (membership testing), insertion, and deletion have logarithmic complexity.

## Compatibility

See the Compatibility Section in the `sets`

module
for information about the compatibility of the different implementations of sets
in the Standard Library.

## See Also

# Summary

## Functions

Equivalent to `add_element(Element, Set1)`

.

Returns a new set formed from `Set1`

with `Element`

inserted. If `Element`

is
already an element in `Set1`

, nothing is changed.

Rebalances the tree representation of `Set1`

.

Equivalent to `delete_any(Element, Set1)`

.

Returns a new set formed from `Set1`

with `Element`

removed. Assumes that
`Element`

is present in `Set1`

.

Returns a new set formed from `Set1`

with `Element`

removed. If `Element`

is not
an element in `Set1`

, nothing is changed.

Equivalent to `subtract(Set1, Set2)`

.

Returns a new empty set.

Filters elements in `Set1`

using predicate function `Pred`

.

Filters and maps elements in `Set1`

using function `Fun`

.

Folds `Function`

over every element in `Set`

returning the final value of the
accumulator.

Returns a set of the elements in `List`

, where `List`

can be unordered and
contain duplicates.

Turns an ordered-set list `List`

into a set. The list must not contain
duplicates.

Returns a new set formed from `Set1`

with `Element`

inserted. Assumes that
`Element`

is not present in `Set1`

.

Returns the intersection of the non-empty list of sets.

Returns the intersection of `Set1`

and `Set2`

.

Returns `true`

if `Set1`

and `Set2`

are disjoint (have no elements in common),
otherwise `false`

.

Equivalent to `is_member(Element, Set)`

.

Returns `true`

if `Set`

is an empty set, otherwise `false`

.

Returns `true`

if `Set1`

and `Set2`

are equal, that is when every element of one
set is also a member of the respective other set, otherwise `false`

.

Returns `true`

if `Element`

is an member of `Set`

, otherwise `false`

.

Returns `true`

if `Term`

appears to be a set, otherwise `false`

. This function
will return `true`

for any term that coincides with the representation of a
`gb_set`

, while not really being a `gb_set`

, thus it might return false positive
results. See also note on data types.

Returns `true`

when every element of `Set1`

is also a member of `Set2`

,
otherwise `false`

.

Returns an iterator that can be used for traversing the entries of `Set`

; see
`next/1`

.

Returns an iterator that can be used for traversing the entries of `Set`

in
either `ordered`

or `reversed`

direction; see `next/1`

.

Returns an iterator that can be used for traversing the entries of `Set`

; see
`next/1`

. The difference as compared to the iterator returned by `iterator/1`

is
that the iterator starts with the first element greater than or equal to
`Element`

.

Returns an iterator that can be used for traversing the entries of `Set`

; see
`next/1`

. The difference as compared to the iterator returned by `iterator/2`

is
that the iterator starts with the first element next to or equal to `Element`

.

Returns `{found, Element2}`

, where `Element2`

is the least element strictly
greater than `Element1`

.

Returns the largest element in `Set`

. Assumes that `Set`

is not empty.

Maps elements in `Set1`

using mapping function `Fun`

.

Returns a new empty set.

Returns `{Element, Iter2}`

, where `Element`

is the smallest element referred to
by iterator `Iter1`

, and `Iter2`

is the new iterator to be used for traversing
the remaining elements, or the atom `none`

if no elements remain.

Returns a set containing only element `Element`

.

Returns the number of elements in `Set`

.

Returns `{found, Element2}`

, where `Element2`

is the greatest element strictly
less than `Element1`

.

Returns the smallest element in `Set`

. Assumes that `Set`

is not empty.

Returns only the elements of `Set1`

that are not also elements of `Set2`

.

Returns `{Element, Set2}`

, where `Element`

is the largest element in `Set1`

, and
`Set2`

is this set with `Element`

deleted. Assumes that `Set1`

is not empty.

Returns `{Element, Set2}`

, where `Element`

is the smallest element in `Set1`

,
and `Set2`

is this set with `Element`

deleted. Assumes that `Set1`

is not empty.

Returns the elements of `Set`

as a list.

Returns the merged (union) set of the list of sets.

Returns the merged (union) set of `Set1`

and `Set2`

.

# Types

# Functions

Equivalent to `add_element(Element, Set1)`

.

Returns a new set formed from `Set1`

with `Element`

inserted. If `Element`

is
already an element in `Set1`

, nothing is changed.

Rebalances the tree representation of `Set1`

.

Notice that this is rarely necessary, but can be motivated when a large number of elements have been deleted from the tree without further insertions. Rebalancing can then be forced to minimise lookup times, as deletion does not rebalance the tree.

Equivalent to `delete_any(Element, Set1)`

.

Returns a new set formed from `Set1`

with `Element`

removed. Assumes that
`Element`

is present in `Set1`

.

Returns a new set formed from `Set1`

with `Element`

removed. If `Element`

is not
an element in `Set1`

, nothing is changed.

-spec difference(Set1, Set2) -> Set3 when Set1 :: set(Element), Set2 :: set(Element), Set3 :: set(Element).

Equivalent to `subtract(Set1, Set2)`

.

Returns a new empty set.

-spec filter(Pred, Set1) -> Set2 when Pred :: fun((Element) -> boolean()), Set1 :: set(Element), Set2 :: set(Element).

Filters elements in `Set1`

using predicate function `Pred`

.

-spec filtermap(Fun, Set1) -> Set2 when Fun :: fun((Element1) -> boolean() | {true, Element2}), Set1 :: set(Element1), Set2 :: set(Element1 | Element2).

Filters and maps elements in `Set1`

using function `Fun`

.

-spec fold(Function, Acc0, Set) -> Acc1 when Function :: fun((Element, AccIn) -> AccOut), Acc0 :: Acc, Acc1 :: Acc, AccIn :: Acc, AccOut :: Acc, Set :: set(Element).

Folds `Function`

over every element in `Set`

returning the final value of the
accumulator.

-spec from_list(List) -> Set when List :: [Element], Set :: set(Element).

Returns a set of the elements in `List`

, where `List`

can be unordered and
contain duplicates.

-spec from_ordset(List) -> Set when List :: [Element], Set :: set(Element).

Turns an ordered-set list `List`

into a set. The list must not contain
duplicates.

Returns a new set formed from `Set1`

with `Element`

inserted. Assumes that
`Element`

is not present in `Set1`

.

Returns the intersection of the non-empty list of sets.

-spec intersection(Set1, Set2) -> Set3 when Set1 :: set(Element), Set2 :: set(Element), Set3 :: set(Element).

Returns the intersection of `Set1`

and `Set2`

.

Returns `true`

if `Set1`

and `Set2`

are disjoint (have no elements in common),
otherwise `false`

.

Equivalent to `is_member(Element, Set)`

.

Returns `true`

if `Set`

is an empty set, otherwise `false`

.

Returns `true`

if `Set1`

and `Set2`

are equal, that is when every element of one
set is also a member of the respective other set, otherwise `false`

.

Returns `true`

if `Element`

is an member of `Set`

, otherwise `false`

.

Returns `true`

if `Term`

appears to be a set, otherwise `false`

. This function
will return `true`

for any term that coincides with the representation of a
`gb_set`

, while not really being a `gb_set`

, thus it might return false positive
results. See also note on data types.

Returns `true`

when every element of `Set1`

is also a member of `Set2`

,
otherwise `false`

.

Returns an iterator that can be used for traversing the entries of `Set`

; see
`next/1`

.

Equivalent to `iterator(Set, ordered)`

.

-spec iterator(Set, Order) -> Iter when Set :: set(Element), Iter :: iter(Element), Order :: ordered | reversed.

Returns an iterator that can be used for traversing the entries of `Set`

in
either `ordered`

or `reversed`

direction; see `next/1`

.

The implementation of this is very efficient; traversing the whole set using
`next/1`

is only slightly slower than getting the list of all
elements using `to_list/1`

and traversing that. The main advantage of the
iterator approach is that it does not require the complete list of all elements
to be built in memory at one time.

Returns an iterator that can be used for traversing the entries of `Set`

; see
`next/1`

. The difference as compared to the iterator returned by `iterator/1`

is
that the iterator starts with the first element greater than or equal to
`Element`

.

Equivalent to `iterator_from(Element, Set, ordered)`

.

-spec iterator_from(Element, Set, Order) -> Iter when Set :: set(Element), Iter :: iter(Element), Order :: ordered | reversed.

Returns an iterator that can be used for traversing the entries of `Set`

; see
`next/1`

. The difference as compared to the iterator returned by `iterator/2`

is
that the iterator starts with the first element next to or equal to `Element`

.

-spec larger(Element1, Set) -> none | {found, Element2} when Element1 :: Element, Element2 :: Element, Set :: set(Element).

Returns `{found, Element2}`

, where `Element2`

is the least element strictly
greater than `Element1`

.

Returns `none`

if no such element exists.

-spec largest(Set) -> Element when Set :: set(Element).

Returns the largest element in `Set`

. Assumes that `Set`

is not empty.

-spec map(Fun, Set1) -> Set2 when Fun :: fun((Element1) -> Element2), Set1 :: set(Element1), Set2 :: set(Element2).

Maps elements in `Set1`

using mapping function `Fun`

.

Returns a new empty set.

Returns `{Element, Iter2}`

, where `Element`

is the smallest element referred to
by iterator `Iter1`

, and `Iter2`

is the new iterator to be used for traversing
the remaining elements, or the atom `none`

if no elements remain.

-spec singleton(Element) -> set(Element).

Returns a set containing only element `Element`

.

-spec size(Set) -> non_neg_integer() when Set :: set().

Returns the number of elements in `Set`

.

-spec smaller(Element1, Set) -> none | {found, Element2} when Element1 :: Element, Element2 :: Element, Set :: set(Element).

Returns `{found, Element2}`

, where `Element2`

is the greatest element strictly
less than `Element1`

.

Returns `none`

if no such element exists.

-spec smallest(Set) -> Element when Set :: set(Element).

Returns the smallest element in `Set`

. Assumes that `Set`

is not empty.

-spec subtract(Set1, Set2) -> Set3 when Set1 :: set(Element), Set2 :: set(Element), Set3 :: set(Element).

Returns only the elements of `Set1`

that are not also elements of `Set2`

.

Returns `{Element, Set2}`

, where `Element`

is the largest element in `Set1`

, and
`Set2`

is this set with `Element`

deleted. Assumes that `Set1`

is not empty.

Returns `{Element, Set2}`

, where `Element`

is the smallest element in `Set1`

,
and `Set2`

is this set with `Element`

deleted. Assumes that `Set1`

is not empty.

-spec to_list(Set) -> List when Set :: set(Element), List :: [Element].

Returns the elements of `Set`

as a list.

Returns the merged (union) set of the list of sets.

-spec union(Set1, Set2) -> Set3 when Set1 :: set(Element), Set2 :: set(Element), Set3 :: set(Element).

Returns the merged (union) set of `Set1`

and `Set2`

.