1  Crypto Release Notes

1 Crypto Release Notes

This document describes the changes made to the Crypto application.

  • The function crypto:pbkdf2_hmac will no longer block the main schedulers. If the iteration count or block size parameters are such that the function is likely to take a long time to execute, the function will be scheduled to run on a dirty CPU scheduler.

    Own Id: OTP-18996 Aux Id: PR-8173, PR-8174

  • Fix VM crash caused by crypto being purged and reloaded (by init:restart for example) on OS with musl libc (such as Alpine linux).

    Own Id: OTP-18670 Aux Id: GH-7436, PR-7450

  • Changed the behaviour of the engine load/unload functions

    The engine load/unload functions have got changed semantics to get a more consistent behaviour and work correct when variables are garbage collected.

    The load functions now don't register the methods for the engine to replace. That will now be handled with the new functions engine_register/engine_unregister if needed.

    Some functions functions are removed from the documentation and therefor the API, but they are left in the code for compatibility.

    • engine_load/4: is now the same as engine_load/3
    • engine_unload/2: is now the same as engine_unload/1
    • ensure_engine_loaded/3: is now the same as ensure_engine_loaded/2
    • ensure_engine_unloaded/1, ensure_engine_unloaded/2: is now the same as engine_unload/1


    Own Id: OTP-18172 Aux Id: ERIERL-826

  • Fix configure with --with-ssl and --disable-dynamic-ssl-lib on Windows.

    Own Id: OTP-18147 Aux Id: GH-6024, PR-6056

  • Fix timing bug in ensure_engine_loaded

    When two ensure_engine_loaded() calls were done in parallel there was a possibility that a crypto lib function was called by both instead of just one of them which resulted in an error. This is solved by moving the implementation from erlang down into a NIF function that uses a mutex to protect the sensitive part.

    Own Id: OTP-17858 Aux Id: ERIERL-728

  • The crypto app in OTP can since OTP-24.2 be compiled, linked and used with the new OpenSSL 3.0 cryptolib.

    The crypto app has 3.0 support has been improved, but is still *not recommended* for other usages than experiments and alpha testing. There are not yet any guaranties that it works, not even together with other OTP applications like for example SSL and SSH, although there are no known errors.

    Since the previous release, OTP-24.2, the following improvements have been done:

    - It has been tested during nearly every nightly test on the OTP lab

    - The hash algorithms md4 and ripemd160 have been enabled with OpenSSL 3.0.

    - The ciphers blowfish_cbc, blowfish_ecb, des_cbc, des_cfb, des_ecb, rc2_cbc and rc4 have been enabled with OpenSSL 3.0.

    Disabled or unsupported with OpenSSL 3.0 are still:

    - ENGINE support

    - FIPS mode

    - Other providers than the built-in ones

    - Compiling and linking with OpenSSL 3.0 cryptolib in compatibility modes (for example to behave as 1.1.1)

    and, the ciphers blowfish_cfb64 and blowfish_ofb64 are not supported and will not be either.

    Deprecated functions in the OpenSSL 3.0 cryptolib must not be disabled as OTP/crypto still uses some of the deprecated API functions. The gcc flag -Wno-deprecated-declarations is set to prevent deprecation warnings to be printed when compiling.

    Own Id: OTP-17812 Aux Id: OTP-16646, OTP-16282

  • Crypto is adapted to LibreSSL 3.5.0 on OpenBSD.

    Own Id: OTP-17941 Aux Id: OTP-17942

  • New configure option ( --disable-otp-test-engine) to prohibit the build of the OTP test engine used in some test suites.

    The reason is that the test engine could be hard to compile on for instance LibreSSL 3.5.0. For that particular cryptolib version (or higher), this configure option is set automatically.

    Own Id: OTP-17942 Aux Id: OTP-17941

  • Fixed the C-warning "implicit declaration of function 'OpenSSL_version_num'" if compiling with an early LibreSSL version.

    Own Id: OTP-17637

  • FIPS availability was not checked correctly for AEAD ciphers.

    Own Id: OTP-17740

  • Fixed that cipher aliases (like aes_cbc etc) could be present even if the aliased cipher(s) (like aes_128_cbc, aes_256_cbc,... etc) was missing.

    Own Id: OTP-17741

  • The crypto app in OTP can now be compiled, linked and used with the new OpenSSL 3.0 cryptolib.

    It has not yet been extensively tested and is in this release *not recommended* for other usages than experiments and alpha testing. There are not yet any guaranties that it works, not even together with other OTP applications like for example SSL and SSH, although there are no known errors.

    Compiling and linking with OpenSSL 3.0 cryptolib in compatibility modes (for example to behave as 1.1.1) are not tested. It is not tested with external providers.

    The support for FIPS mode does not yet work, and is disabled when compiled with OpenSSL 3.0.

    Deprecated functions in the OpenSSL 3.0 cryptolib must not be disabled as OTP/crypto still uses some of the deprecated API functions. The gcc flag -Wno-deprecated-declarations is set to prevent deprecation warnings to be printed when compiling.

    The hash algorithms md4 and ripemd160 are disabled temporarily when compiled with OpenSSL 3.0.

    The ciphers blowfish_cbc, blowfish_cfb64, blowfish_ecb, blowfish_ofb64, des_cbc, des_cfb, des_ecb, rc2_cbc and rc4 are disabled temporarily when compiled with OpenSSL 3.0.

    Own Id: OTP-16646 Aux Id: OTP-16282

  • The error handling in crypto is partly refactored using the new error reporting support. Errors earlier propagated like exceptions are still so, but when the failing function is called from the terminal - for example during failure hunting - a more descriptive text is produced.

    Own Id: OTP-17241

  • A new function crypto:info/0 which presents some data about the compilation and linkage of the crypto nif is added.

    Own Id: OTP-17603

  • Added the pbkdf2_hmac/5 function to the crypto module.

    It calls the PKCS5_PBKDF2_HMAC function which implements PBKD2 with HMAC in an efficient way.

    Own Id: OTP-17808 Aux Id: PR-5421

  • Fixed minor memory leak at crypto module purge.

    Own Id: OTP-17668 Aux Id: PR-5245

  • Fix possible inconsistency in fips mode when linking with some cryptolibs.

    Own Id: OTP-17672

  • Fix bug in crypto:ensure_engine_unloaded. Also fixed minor memory leak related to engine unloading.

    Own Id: OTP-17593 Aux Id: ERIERL-679

  • Fixes that FIPS enable and disable (or vice versa) on Windows sometimes leads to core dump at the time of process exit.

    Own Id: OTP-17618 Aux Id: PR-5126, GH-4920

  • Disable fips if cryptolib < 1.0.1 and OTP/crypto is configured with --enable-fips

    If not, there could be compiling or loading problems with antique OpenSSL versions.

    Own Id: OTP-17389

  • EC keys are now zero-padded to the expected length if needed.

    Own Id: OTP-17442 Aux Id: GH-4861

  • Removed a risk for coredump.

    Own Id: OTP-17391 Aux Id: GH-4810

  • Fixed and documented the DED_LDFLAGS_CONFTEST configuration variable in $ERL_TOP/HOWTO/INSTALL.md.

    Own Id: OTP-17419 Aux Id: GH-4821

  • Commit of generated configure script.

    Own Id: OTP-17420 Aux Id: OTP-17398, GH-4821

  • Add /usr/local/opt/openssl to the openssl configure search path. This path is where some tools on OS X place openssl.

    Own Id: OTP-16882

  • Fix compiler warnings produced by the clang compiler.

    Own Id: OTP-17105 Aux Id: PR-2872

  • The configure scripts in crypto and erts now fail if a requested feature cannot be enabled.

    Large parts of the configure script of crypto have been rewritten with various improvements and bug fixes. It is now better at finding usable OpenSSL libraries, but will in the following cases fail to detect OpenSSL libraries where it previously sometimes detected the libraries by chance:

    • OpenSSL installations with include directory and lib directory parts installed in different base directories. In order to detect such installations after this change, the user must explicitly specify the locations using the --with-ssl=<path> and the --with-ssl-incl=<path> configure command line arguments.
    • When building with old gcc compilers or other compilers on Debian derivatives with multiarch directories under the lib directory. In order to detect such installations after this change, the user must explicitly specify the multiarch directory name using the --with-ssl-lib-subdir=lib/<multiarch-dir> configure command line argument.

    Own Id: OTP-17254 Aux Id: ERIERL-618, GH-4230

  • The value 'none' was missing in the specs of crypto:sign/4 and crypto:verify/6.

    Own Id: OTP-17312 Aux Id: PR-4723

  • The functions and cipher names that were deprecated in OTP-23.0 are now removed.


    Own Id: OTP-16656

  • Removed installed directory priv/obj/ containing superfluous object files.

    Own Id: OTP-17001 Aux Id: PR-2852

  • TLS connections now support EdDSA certificates.

    Own Id: OTP-17142 Aux Id: PR-4756, GH-4637, GH-4650

  • Add prop_aead attribute to map from crypto:cipher_info/1.

    Own Id: OTP-17313 Aux Id: PR-4686

  • EC keys are now zero-padded to the expected length if needed.

    Own Id: OTP-17442 Aux Id: GH-4861

  • Removed a risk for coredump.

    Own Id: OTP-17391 Aux Id: GH-4810

  • Commit of generated configure script.

    Own Id: OTP-17420 Aux Id: OTP-17398, GH-4821

  • Fix minor memory leaks in crypto ENGINE and robustify the code.

    Own Id: OTP-17212

  • The otp_test_engine no longer fails if NO_EC* is set in the OpenSSL configuration.

    Own Id: OTP-17256 Aux Id: PR-4580, GH-4573

  • Various address sanitizer support.

    Own Id: OTP-16959 Aux Id: PR-2965

  • EVP is now disabled for OpenSSL cryptolib versions up to and including 1.0.2

    Own Id: OTP-17116 Aux Id: PR-2972

  • Warning for unused C function removed

    Own Id: OTP-17145 Aux Id: OTP-17105, PR-2872

  • Adding missing flag in BN-calls in SRP.

    Own Id: OTP-17107

  • Fixed usage of AC_CONFIG_AUX_DIRS() macros in configure script sources.

    Own Id: OTP-17093 Aux Id: ERL-1447, PR-2948

  • Build the supported curves cache in the NIF when crypto is loaded, no matter how it is loaded.

    This prevents a possible problem with different processes starting the crypto application concurrently.

    Own Id: OTP-16819 Aux Id: PR-2720

  • It is now possible to build with crypto and openssl gprof-enabled and statically link them into the VM.

    Own Id: OTP-17029

  • Fixed performance loss in HMAC when using older OpenSSL due to mutex issues.

    A workaround is implemented to allow fallback from using the EVP API for HMAC operations. On some architectures this may improve the performance, especially with old OpenSSL versions. This fallback to low-level functions is always enabled for openssl versions before 1.0.2.

    Own Id: OTP-17025 Aux Id: ERL-1400, PR-2877

  • Fix type spec bug in crypto for crypto_init and crypto:one_time

    Own Id: OTP-16658 Aux Id: OTP-15884, ERL-1257

  • The deprecation message for crypto:rand_uniform/2 indicated a non-existent function. The correct one (rand:uniform/1) is now suggested.

    Own Id: OTP-16846 Aux Id: PR-2741

  • Implemented a workaround to allow fallback from using the EVP API for Diffie-Hellman key generation

    Own Id: OTP-16771 Aux Id: ERIERL-509

  • The internal Diffie-Hellman high level API for key generation was slow in old and by OpenSSL now unsupported cryptolib versions (1.0.1 and earlier).

    If such a cryptolib is used anyhow, the low-level API is used internally in the crypto application.

    Own Id: OTP-16774

  • Crypto reported unsupported elliptic curves as supported on e.g Fedora distros.

    Own Id: OTP-16579 Aux Id: ERL-825

  • Support for ed25519 and ed448 added to crypto:generate_key.

    Own Id: OTP-15967 Aux Id: PR-2329

  • The new crypto functions api (crypto_init, crypto_update and crypto_one_time) has been updated.

    There is now a function crypto_final/1 and a possibility to set options in crypto_init/3 and crypto_init/4. See the manual for details.

    Own Id: OTP-16160

  • As announced in OTP 22.0, a New API was introduced in CRYPTO. See the New and Old API chapter in the CRYPTO User's Guide for more information and suggested replacement functions.

    The Old API is now deprecated in OTP-23.0 and will be removed in OTP-24.0.

    This deprecation includes cipher names. See the section Retired cipher names in the crypto User's Guide, chapter The Old API.

    Own Id: OTP-16232

  • Fix C-compilation without deprecated OpenSSL cryptolib APIs

    Own Id: OTP-16369 Aux Id: PR-2474

  • Refactored the internal handling of deprecated and removed functions.

    Own Id: OTP-16469

  • Added missing 'eddh' to crypto:supports(public_keys).

    Own Id: OTP-16583

  • EC keys are now zero-padded to the expected length if needed.

    Own Id: OTP-17442 Aux Id: GH-4861

  • Removed a risk for coredump.

    Own Id: OTP-17391 Aux Id: GH-4810

  • Commit of generated configure script.

    Own Id: OTP-17420 Aux Id: OTP-17398, GH-4821

  • Adding missing flag in BN-calls in SRP.

    Own Id: OTP-17107

  • Implemented a workaround to allow fallback from using the EVP API for Diffie-Hellman key generation

    Own Id: OTP-16771 Aux Id: ERIERL-509

  • Fixed potential memory leaks involving calls to the crypto ng_api.

    Own Id: OTP-16428 Aux Id: PR-2511

  • Constant time comparisons added.

    Own Id: OTP-16376

  • The ciphers aes_cfb8 and aes_cfb128 are now using the EVP interface. The supported key lengths are 128, 192 and 256 bits.

    Own Id: OTP-16133 Aux Id: PR-2407

  • The ciphers aes_cfb8 and aes_cfb128 are now available in FIPS enabled mode.

    Own Id: OTP-16134 Aux Id: PR-2407

  • The AEAD tag was not previously checked on decrypt with chacha20_poly1305

    Own Id: OTP-16242 Aux Id: ERL-1078

  • FIxed a bug if the erlang emulator was linked with a very old cryptolib version (1.0.1 or earlier).

    The bug now fixed could have triggered a core dump if an unknown cipher name was used in crypto functions.

    Own Id: OTP-16202

  • The implementation of crypto_one_time/4 is adjusted to match the type specification. The spec and the black-box behaviour of the function are unchanged.

    Some details: Both the spec and the implementation were correct seen separately. But with both of them combined simultaneously with crypto_one_time/5 which was called by the implementation of crypto_one_time/4, an (obvious) error was detected by a Dialyzer with more thorough checking than usual.

    Own Id: OTP-15884 Aux Id: ERL-974

  • When using crypto with FIPS mode enabled, the digests were not correctly handled.

    Own Id: OTP-15911

  • A memory leak in error handling code in ng_crypto_init_nif is fixed.

    Own Id: OTP-15924

  • Fixed the broken static build of the crypto nifs

    Own Id: OTP-15928 Aux Id: PR-2296

  • The Message Authentication Codes (MAC) CMAC, HMAC and Poly1305 are unified into common functions in the New Crypto API. See the manual for CRYPTO.

    Own Id: OTP-13872

  • The cipher aes-ctr was disabled by mistake in crypto:supports for cryptolibs before 1.0.1. It worked however in the encrypt and decrypt functions.

    Own Id: OTP-15829

  • Fixed a bug in error return for crypto:poly1305/2. It returned the atom notsup instead of the exception notsup.


    Own Id: OTP-15677

  • The cipher chacha20 was introduced in OpenSSL 1.1.0. However, it could in a very odd situation, fail for versions less than OpenSSL 1.1.0d. It is therefore disabled for those versions.


    Own Id: OTP-15678

  • A new rand module algorithm, exro928ss (Xoroshiro928**), has been implemented. It has got a really long period and good statistical quality for all output bits, while still being only about 50% slower than the default algorithm.

    The same generator is also used as a long period counter in a new crypto plugin for the rand module, algorithm crypto_aes. This plugin uses AES-256 to scramble the counter which buries any detectable statistical artifacts. Scrambling is done in chunks which are cached to get good amortized speed (about half of the default algorithm).

    Own Id: OTP-14461 Aux Id: PR-1857

  • Crypto's single C-file is split into multiple files. The different coding styles in the different parts are unified into a single style.

    Own Id: OTP-14732 Aux Id: PR-2068, PR-2095

  • Build configuration of the crypto application has been moved from the erts application into the crypto application.

    Own Id: OTP-15129

  • Adds two hash functions blake2b and blake2s (64 bit hash and 32 bit hash respectively). These are modern and standard hash functions used in blockchains and encrypted communication protocols. The hash functions are available in OpenSSL since version 1.1.1.

    Own Id: OTP-15564 Aux Id: PR-2129

  • A new API is implemented in crypto. See the CRYPTO user's guide, chapter New and Old API for more information.

    The old api with the crypto:block_* and crypto:stream_* interfaces are kept for compatibility, but implemented with the new api. Please note that since the error checking is more thorough, there might be arguments with for example faulty lengths that are no longer accepted.


    Own Id: OTP-15644 Aux Id: OTP-14732 , OTP-15451, PR-1857 , PR-2068, PR-2095

  • The new hash_info/1 and cipher_info/1 functions returns maps with information about the hash or cipher in the argument.

    Own Id: OTP-15655 Aux Id: PR-2173, ERL-864, PR-2186

  • Obey additional OpenSSL configure flags when compiling the C-part of the CRYPTO application: no-bf, no-blake2, no-chacha, no-cmac, no-dh, no-dsa, no-md4, no-poly1305, no-rc2, no-rc4 and no-rmd160.

    Own Id: OTP-15683

  • A new function crypto:supports/1 is introduced. The single argument takes an atom as argument: hashes, public_keys, ciphers, macs, curves or rsa_opts. The return value is a list of supported algorithms.

    The difference with the existing crypto:supports/0 is, apart from the argument and the return value, that the old function reports what is supported by the old api, and the new function reports algorithms in the new api.

    Own Id: OTP-15771

  • Adding missing flag in BN-calls in SRP.

    Own Id: OTP-17107

  • Constant time comparisons added.

    Own Id: OTP-16376

  • The ciphers aes_cfb8 and aes_cfb128 are now using the EVP interface. The supported key lengths are 128, 192 and 256 bits.

    Own Id: OTP-16133 Aux Id: PR-2407

  • The ciphers aes_cfb8 and aes_cfb128 are now available in FIPS enabled mode.

    Own Id: OTP-16134 Aux Id: PR-2407

  • Fixed build link error on Windows. Unresolved symbol 'bcmp'.

    Own Id: OTP-15750 Aux Id: ERL-905

  • Fixes a bug that caused crypto:sign and crypto:verify to return the error message badarg instead of notsup in one case. That case was when signing or verifying with eddsa keys (that is, ed15519 or ed448), but only when FIPS was supported and enabled.

    Own Id: OTP-15634

  • Added a crypto benchmark test suite.

    Own Id: OTP-15447

  • Updated the RSA options part in the crypto application's C-code, documentation and tests.

    Own Id: OTP-15302

  • Added ed25519 and ed448 sign/verify.

    Requires OpenSSL 1.1.1 or higher as cryptolib under the OTP application crypto.

    Own Id: OTP-15419 Aux Id: OTP-15094

  • Fixed valgrind warnings.

    Own Id: OTP-15467

  • The RSA options rsa_mgf1_md, rsa_oaep_md, and rsa_oaep_label were always disabled. They will now be enabled when a suitable cryptolib is used.

    They are still experimental and may change without prior notice.

    Own Id: OTP-15212 Aux Id: ERL-675, PR1899, PR838

  • The ciphers aes_ige256 and blowfish_cbc had naming issues in crypto:next_iv/2.

    Own Id: OTP-15283

  • the RSA_SSLV23_PADDING is disabled if LibreSSL is used as cryptlib. This is due to compilation problems.

    This will be investigated further in the future.

    Own Id: OTP-15303

  • The supported named elliptic curves are now reported in crypto:supports/0 in a new entry tagged by 'curves'.

    The function crypto:ec_curves/0 is kept for compatibility.

    Own Id: OTP-14717 Aux Id: OTP-15244

  • The typing in the CRYPTO and PUBLIC_KEY applications are reworked and a few mistakes are corrected.

    The documentation is now generated from the typing and some clarifications are made.

    A new chapter on Algorithm Details such as key sizes and availability is added to the CRYPTO User's Guide.

    Own Id: OTP-15134

  • Support for SHA3 both as a separate hash and in HMAC is now available if OpenSSL 1.1.1 or higher is used as cryptolib.

    Available lengths are reported in the 'hashs' entry in crypto:supports/0 as sha3_*.

    Own Id: OTP-15153

  • The mac algorithm poly1305 and the cipher algorithm chacha20 are now supported if OpenSSL 1.1.1 or higher is used as cryptolib.

    Own Id: OTP-15164 Aux Id: OTP-15209

  • The key exchange Edward curves x25519 and x448 are now supported if OpenSSL 1.1.1 or higher is used as cryptolib.

    Own Id: OTP-15240 Aux Id: OTP-15133

  • The supported RSA options for sign/verify and encrypt/decrypt are now reported in crypto:supports/0 in a new entry tagged by 'rsa_opts'.

    The exakt set is still experimental and may change without prior notice.

    Own Id: OTP-15260

  • The cipher aes_ccm is added.

    Own Id: OTP-15286

  • Update the crypto engine functions to handle multiple loads of an engine.

    engine_load/3/4 is updated so it doesn't add the engine ID to OpenSSLs internal list of engines which makes it possible to run the engine_load more than once if it doesn't contain global data.

    Added ensure_engine_loaded/2/3 which guarantees that the engine just is loaded once and the following calls just returns a reference to it. This is done by add the ID to the internal OpenSSL list and check if it is already registered when the function is called.

    Added ensure_engine_unloaded/1/2 to unload engines loaded with ensure_engine_loaded.

    Then some more utility functions are added.

    engine_add/1, adds the engine to OpenSSL internal list

    engine_remove/1, remove the engine from OpenSSL internal list

    engine_get_id/1, fetch the engines id

    engine_get_name/1, fetch the engine name

    Own Id: OTP-15233

  • Fixed a node crash in crypto:compute_key(ecdh, ...) when passing a wrongly typed Others argument.

    Own Id: OTP-15194 Aux Id: ERL-673

  • Removed two undocumented and erroneous functions (crypto:dh_generate_parameters/2 and crypto:dh_check/1).

    Own Id: OTP-14956 Aux Id: ERL-579

  • Fixed bug causing VM crash if doing runtime upgrade of a crypto module built against OpenSSL older than 0.9.8h. Bug exists since OTP-20.2.

    Own Id: OTP-15088

  • A new rand plugin algorithm has been implemented in crypto, that is: crypto_cache. It uses strong random bytes as randomness source and caches them to get good speed. See crypto:rand_seed_alg/1.

    Own Id: OTP-13370 Aux Id: PR-1573

  • Diffie-Hellman key functions are re-written with the EVP_PKEY api.

    Own Id: OTP-14864

  • Constant time comparisons added.

    Own Id: OTP-16376

  • The ciphers aes_cfb8 and aes_cfb128 are now using the EVP interface. The supported key lengths are 128, 192 and 256 bits.

    Own Id: OTP-16133 Aux Id: PR-2407

  • Fixed a node crash in crypto:compute_key(ecdh, ...) when passing a wrongly typed Others argument.

    Own Id: OTP-15194 Aux Id: ERL-673

  • If OPENSSL_NO_EC was set, the compilation of the crypto nifs failed.

    Own Id: OTP-15073

  • C-compile errors for LibreSSL 2.7.0 - 2.7.2 fixed

    Own Id: OTP-15074 Aux Id: ERL-618

  • Fix build error caused by removed RSA padding functions in LibreSSL >= 2.6.1

    Own Id: OTP-14873

  • The compatibility function void HMAC_CTX_free in crypto.c erroneously tried to return a value.

    Own Id: OTP-14720

  • Rewrite public and private key encode/decode with EVP api. New RSA padding options added. This is a modified half of PR-838.

    Own Id: OTP-14446

  • The crypto API is extended to use private/public keys stored in an Engine for sign/verify or encrypt/decrypt operations.

    The ssl application provides an API to use this new engine concept in TLS.

    Own Id: OTP-14448

  • Add support to plug in alternative implementations for some or all of the cryptographic operations supported by the OpenSSL Engine API. When configured appropriately, OpenSSL calls the engine's implementation of these operations instead of its own.

    Own Id: OTP-14567

  • Replaced a call of the OpenSSL deprecated function DH_generate_parameters in crypto.c.

    Own Id: OTP-14639

  • Documentation added about how to use keys stored in an Engine.

    Own Id: OTP-14735 Aux Id: OTP-14448

  • Add engine_ ctrl_cmd_string/3,4 the OpenSSL Engine support in crypto.

    Own Id: OTP-14801

  • On macOS, crypto would crash if observer had been started before crypto. On the beta for macOS 10.13 (High Sierra), crypto would crash. Both of those bugs have been fixed.

    Own Id: OTP-14499 Aux Id: ERL-251 ERL-439

  • Extend crypto:sign, crypto:verify, public_key:sign and public_key:verify with:

    * support for RSASSA-PS padding for signatures and for saltlength setting
    * X9.31 RSA padding.
    * sha, sha224, sha256, sha384, and sha512 for dss signatures as mentioned in NIST SP 800-57 Part 1.
    * ripemd160 to be used for rsa signatures.

    This is a manual merge of half of the pull request 838 by potatosalad from Sept 2015.

    Own Id: OTP-13704 Aux Id: PR838

  • A new tuple in crypto:supports/0 reports supported MAC algorithms.

    Own Id: OTP-14504

  • LibreSSL can now be used by the modernized crypto app.

    Own Id: OTP-14247

  • Add compile option -compile(no_native) in modules with on_load directive which is not yet supported by HiPE.

    Own Id: OTP-14316 Aux Id: PR-1390

  • Fix a bug in aes cfb128 function introduced by the bug fix in GitHub pull request #1393.

    Own Id: OTP-14435 Aux Id: PR-1462, PR-1393, OTP-14313

  • Add basic support for CMAC

    Own Id: OTP-13779 Aux Id: ERL-82 PR-1138

  • Removed functions deprecated in crypto-3.0 first released in OTP-R16B01


    Own Id: OTP-13873

  • The crypto application now supports OpenSSL 1.1.

    Own Id: OTP-13900

  • Allow Erlang/OTP to use OpenSSL in FIPS-140 mode, in order to satisfy specific security requirements (mostly by different parts of the US federal government).

    See the new crypto users guide "FIPS mode" chapter about building and using the FIPS support which is disabled by default.

    (Thanks to dszoboszlay and legoscia)

    Own Id: OTP-13921 Aux Id: PR-1180

  • Crypto chacha20-poly1305 as in RFC 7539 enabled for OpenSSL >= 1.1.

    Thanks to mururu.

    Own Id: OTP-14092 Aux Id: PR-1291

  • RSA key generation added to crypto:generate_key/2. Thanks to wiml.

    An interface is also added to public_key:generate_key/1.

    Own Id: OTP-14140 Aux Id: ERL-165, PR-1299

  • Raised minimum requirement for OpenSSL version to OpenSSL-0.9.8.c although we recommend a much higher version, that is a version that is still maintained officially by the OpenSSL project. Note that using such an old version may restrict the crypto algorithms supported.


    Own Id: OTP-14171

  • Deprecate crypto:rand_uniform/2 as it is not cryptographically strong

    Own Id: OTP-14274

  • The Crypto application now supports generation of cryptographically strong random numbers (floats < 1.0 and integer arbitrary ranges) as a plugin to the 'rand' module.

    Own Id: OTP-14317 Aux Id: PR-1372

  • This replaces the hard coded test values for AES, CMAC and GCM ciphers with the full validation set from NIST's CAVP program.

    Own Id: OTP-14436 Aux Id: PR-1396

  • Fix a bug with AES CFB 128 for 192 and 256 bit keys. Thanks to kellymclaughlin !

    Own Id: OTP-14313 Aux Id: PR-1393

  • The implementation of the key exchange algorithms diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha* are optimized, up to a factor of 11 for the slowest ( = biggest and safest) group size.

    Own Id: OTP-14169 Aux Id: seq-13261

  • The crypto application has been fixed to not use RC2 against OpenSSL built with RC2 disabled.

    Own Id: OTP-13895 Aux Id: PR-1163

  • The crypto application has been fixed to not use RC4 against OpenSSL built with RC4 disabled.

    Own Id: OTP-13896 Aux Id: PR-1169

  • To ease troubleshooting, erlang:load_nif/2 now includes the return value from a failed call to load/reload/upgrade in the text part of the error tuple. The crypto NIF makes use of this feature by returning the source line where/if the initialization fails.

    Own Id: OTP-13951

  • Crypto has been fixed to work against OpenSSL versions with disabled DES ciphers. Correct spelling of cipher algorithm 'des3_cfb' has been introduced; the previous misspeling still works.

    Own Id: OTP-13783 Aux Id: ERL-203

  • The size of an internal array in crypto has been fixed to not segfault when having all possible ciphers. Bug fix by Duncan Overbruck.

    Own Id: OTP-13789 Aux Id: PR-1140

  • Refactor crypto to use the EVP interface of OpenSSL, which is the recommended interface that also enables access to hardware acceleration for some operations.

    Own Id: OTP-12217

  • Add support for 192-bit keys for the aes_cbc cipher.

    Own Id: OTP-13206 Aux Id: pr 832

  • Add support for 192-bit keys for aes_ecb.

    Own Id: OTP-13207 Aux Id: pr829

  • Deprecate the function crypto:rand_bytes and make sure that crypto:strong_rand_bytes is used in all places that are cryptographically significant.

    Own Id: OTP-13214

  • Enable AES-GCM encryption/decryption to change the tag length between 1 to 16 bytes.

    Own Id: OTP-13483 Aux Id: PR-998

  • Fix bug for aes_ecb block crypto when data is larger than 16 bytes.

    Own Id: OTP-13249

  • Improve portability of ECC tests in Crypto and SSL for "exotic" OpenSSL versions.

    Own Id: OTP-13311

  • Small documentation fixes

    Own Id: OTP-13017

  • Make crypto:ec_curves/0 return empty list if elliptic curve is not supported at all.

    Own Id: OTP-12944

  • Enhance crypto:generate_key to calculate ECC public keys from private key.

    Own Id: OTP-12394

  • Fix bug in crypto:generate_key for ecdh that could cause VM crash for faulty input.

    Own Id: OTP-12733

  • Use the EVP API for AES-CBC crypto to enables the use of hardware acceleration for AES-CBC crypto on newer Intel CPUs (AES-NI), among other platforms.

    Own Id: OTP-12380

  • Add AES ECB block encryption.

    Own Id: OTP-12403

  • Extend block_encrypt/decrypt for aes_cfb8 and aes_cfb128 to accept keys of length 128, 192 and 256 bits. Before only 128 bit keys were accepted.

    Own Id: OTP-12467

  • Add configure option --with-ssl-incl=PATH to support OpenSSL installations with headers and libraries at different places.

    Own Id: OTP-12215 Aux Id: seq12700

  • Add configure option --with-ssl-rpath to control which runtime library path to use for dynamic linkage toward OpenSSL.

    Own Id: OTP-12316 Aux Id: seq12753

  • Make crypto verify major version number of OpenSSL header files and runtime library. Loading of crypto will fail if there is a version mismatch.

    Own Id: OTP-12146 Aux Id: seq12700

  • Fix memory leak in crypto:hmac_init/upgrade/final functions for all data and in crypto:hmac/3/4 for data larger than 20000 bytes. Bug exists since OTP 17.0.

    Own Id: OTP-11953

  • Fix memory leak in crypto for elliptic curve.

    Own Id: OTP-11999

  • Add aes_cfb8 cypher to crypto:block_encrypt and block_decrypt.

    Own Id: OTP-11911

  • Fix memory leaks and invalid deallocations in mod_pow, mod_exp and generate_key(srp,...) when bad arguments are passed. (Thanks to Florian Zumbiehi)

    Own Id: OTP-11550

  • Correction of the word 'ChipherText' throughout the documentation (Thanks to Andrew Tunnell-Jones)

    Own Id: OTP-11609

  • Fix fatal bug when using a hmac context variable in more than one call to hmac_update or hmac_final. The reuse of hmac contexts has never worked as the underlying OpenSSL implementation does not support it. It is now documented as having undefined behaviour, but it does not crash or corrupt the VM anymore.

    Own Id: OTP-11724

  • Crypto handles out-of-memory with a controlled abort instead of crash/corruption. (Thanks to Florian Zumbiehi)

    Own Id: OTP-11725

  • Application upgrade (appup) files are corrected for the following applications:

    asn1, common_test, compiler, crypto, debugger, dialyzer, edoc, eldap, erl_docgen, et, eunit, gs, hipe, inets, observer, odbc, os_mon, otp_mibs, parsetools, percept, public_key, reltool, runtime_tools, ssh, syntax_tools, test_server, tools, typer, webtool, wx, xmerl

    A new test utility for testing appup files is added to test_server. This is now used by most applications in OTP.

    (Thanks to Tobias Schlager)

    Own Id: OTP-11744

  • By giving --enable-static-{nifs,drivers} to configure it is now possible to statically linking of nifs and drivers to the main Erlang VM binary. At the moment only the asn1 and crypto nifs of the Erlang/OTP nifs and drivers have been prepared to be statically linked. For more details see the Installation Guide in the System documentation.

    Own Id: OTP-11258

  • Add IGE mode for AES cipher in crypto (Thanks to Yura Beznos).

    Own Id: OTP-11522

  • Moved elliptic curve definition from the crypto NIF/OpenSSL into Erlang code, adds the RFC-5639 brainpool curves and makes TLS use them (RFC-7027).

    Thanks to Andreas Schultz

    Own Id: OTP-11578

  • Remove all obsolete application processes from crypto and make it into a pure library application.

    Own Id: OTP-11619

  • Fix uninitialized pointers in crypto (Thanks to Anthony Ramine)

    Own Id: OTP-11510

  • Refactor ecdsa cipher to simplify code and improve performance.

    Own Id: OTP-11320

  • Integrate elliptic curve contribution from Andreas Schultz

    In order to be able to support elliptic curve cipher suites in SSL/TLS, additions to handle elliptic curve infrastructure has been added to public_key and crypto.

    This also has resulted in a rewrite of the crypto API to gain consistency and remove unnecessary overhead. All OTP applications using crypto has been updated to use the new API.

    Impact: Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) offers equivalent security with smaller key sizes than other public key algorithms. Smaller key sizes result in savings for power, memory, bandwidth, and computational cost that make ECC especially attractive for constrained environments.

    Own Id: OTP-11009

  • Fixed a spelling mistake in crypto docs. Thanks to Klaus Trainer

    Own Id: OTP-11058

  • Make the crypto functions interruptible by chunking input when it is very large and bumping reductions in the nifs.

    Not yet implemented for block_encrypt|decrypt/4

    Impact: Individual calls to crypto functions may take longer time but over all system performance should improve as crypto calls will not become throughput bottlenecks.

    Own Id: OTP-11142

  • Enable runtime upgrade of crypto including the OpenSSL library used by crypto.

    Own Id: OTP-10596

  • Improve documentation and tests for hmac functions in crypto. Thanks to Daniel White

    Own Id: OTP-10640

  • Added ripemd160 support to crypto. Thanks to Michael Loftis

    Own Id: OTP-10667

  • Remove unnecessary dependency to libssl from crypto NIF library. This dependency was introduced by accident in R14B04.

    Own Id: OTP-10064

  • Add crypto and public_key support for the hash functions SHA224, SHA256, SHA384 and SHA512 and also hmac and rsa_sign/verify support using these hash functions. Thanks to Andreas Schultz for making a prototype.

    Own Id: OTP-9908

  • Optimize RSA private key handling in crypto and public_key.

    Own Id: OTP-10065

  • Make crypto:aes_cfb_128_encrypt and crypto:aes_cfb_128_decrypt handle data and cipher with arbitrary length. (Thanks to Stefan Zegenhagen)

    Own Id: OTP-10136

  • public_key, ssl and crypto now supports PKCS-8

    Own Id: OTP-9312

  • Erlang/OTP can now be built using parallel make if you limit the number of jobs, for instance using 'make -j6' or 'make -j10'. 'make -j' does not work at the moment because of some missing dependencies.

    Own Id: OTP-9451

  • Add DES and Triple DES cipher feedback (CFB) mode functions to crypto. (Thanks to Paul Guyot)

    Own Id: OTP-9640

  • Add sha256, sha384 and sha512 support for crypto:rsa_verify.

    Own Id: OTP-9778

  • crypto:rand_uniform works correctly for negative integers. Fails with badarg exception for invalid ranges (when Hi =< Lo) instead of returning incorrect output.

    Own Id: OTP-9526

  • Fix win32 OpenSSL static linking (Thanks to Dave Cottlehuber)

    Own Id: OTP-9532

  • Various small documentation fixes (Thanks to Bernard Duggan)

    Own Id: OTP-9172

  • New crypto support for streaming of AES CTR and HMAC. (Thanks to Travis Jensen)

    Own Id: OTP-9275

  • Due to standard library DLL mismatches between versions of OpenSSL and Erlang/OTP, OpenSSL is now linked statically to the crypto driver on Windows. This fixes problems starting crypto when running Erlang as a service on all Windows versions.

    Own Id: OTP-9280

  • Strengthened random number generation. (Thanks to Geoff Cant)

    Own Id: OTP-9225

  • Misc. Updates.

    Own Id: OTP-9132

  • AES CTR encryption support in crypto.

    Own Id: OTP-8752 Aux Id: seq11642

  • Crypto dialyzer type error in md5_mac and sha_mac.

    Own Id: OTP-8718

  • RC4 stream cipher didn't work. This since the new NIF implementation of crypto:rc4_encrypt_with_state/2 introduced in crypto-2.0 didn't return an updated state. (Thanks to Paul Guyot)

    Own Id: OTP-8781

  • A number of memory leaks in the crypto NIF library have been fixed.

    Own Id: OTP-8810

  • Added erlang:system_info(build_type) which makes it easier to chose drivers, NIF libraries, etc based on build type of the runtime system.

    The NIF library for crypto can now be built for valgrind and/or debug as separate NIF libraries that will be automatically loaded if the runtime system has been built with a matching build type.

    Own Id: OTP-8760

  • crypto application changed to use NIFs instead of driver.

    Own Id: OTP-8333

  • des_ecb_encrypt/2 and des_ecb_decrypt/2 has been added to the crypto module. The crypto:md4/1 function has been documented.

    Own Id: OTP-8551

  • The undocumented, unsupported, and deprecated function lists:flat_length/1 has been removed.

    Own Id: OTP-8584

  • New variants of crypto:dss_sign and crypto:dss_verify with an extra argument to control how the digest is calculated.

    Own Id: OTP-8700

  • Cross compilation improvements and other build system improvements.

    Most notable:

    • Lots of cross compilation improvements. The old cross compilation support was more or less non-existing as well as broken. Please, note that the cross compilation support should still be considered as experimental. Also note that old cross compilation configurations cannot be used without modifications. For more information on cross compiling Erlang/OTP see the $ERL_TOP/INSTALL-CROSS.md file.
    • Support for staged install using DESTDIR. The old broken INSTALL_PREFIX has also been fixed. For more information see the $ERL_TOP/INSTALL.md file.
    • Documentation of the release target of the top Makefile. For more information see the $ERL_TOP/INSTALL.md file.
    • make install now by default creates relative symbolic links instead of absolute ones. For more information see the $ERL_TOP/INSTALL.md file.
    • $ERL_TOP/configure --help=recursive now works and prints help for all applications with configure scripts.
    • Doing make install, or make release directly after make all no longer triggers miscellaneous rebuilds.
    • Existing bootstrap system is now used when doing make install, or make release without a preceding make all.
    • The crypto and ssl applications use the same runtime library path when dynamically linking against libssl.so and libcrypto.so. The runtime library search path has also been extended.
    • The configure scripts of erl_interface and odbc now search for thread libraries and thread library quirks the same way as ERTS do.
    • The configure script of the odbc application now also looks for odbc libraries in lib64 and lib/64 directories when building on a 64-bit system.
    • The config.h.in file in the erl_interface application is now automatically generated in instead of statically updated which reduces the risk of configure tests without any effect.

    (Thanks to Henrik Riomar for suggestions and testing)

    (Thanks to Winston Smith for the AVR32-Linux cross configuration and testing)


    Own Id: OTP-8323

  • The crypto module now supports Blowfish in ECB, CBC and OFB modes. (Thanks to Paul Oliver.)

    Own Id: OTP-8331

  • The documentation is now possible to build in an open source environment after a number of bugs are fixed and some features are added in the documentation build process.

    - The arity calculation is updated.

    - The module prefix used in the function names for bif's are removed in the generated links so the links will look like "http://www.erlang.org/doc/man/erlang.html#append_element-2" instead of "http://www.erlang.org/doc/man/erlang.html#erlang:append_element-2".

    - Enhanced the menu positioning in the html documentation when a new page is loaded.

    - A number of corrections in the generation of man pages (thanks to Sergei Golovan)

    - The legal notice is taken from the xml book file so OTP's build process can be used for non OTP applications.

    Own Id: OTP-8343

  • Suppressed false valgrind errors caused by libcrypto using uninitialized data as entropy.

    Own Id: OTP-8200

  • The documentation is now built with open source tools (xsltproc and fop) that exists on most platforms. One visible change is that the frames are removed.

    Own Id: OTP-8201

  • When the crypto application failed to load the OpenSSL/LibEAY shared object, error indication was sparse. Now a more specific error message is sent to the error logger.

    Own Id: OTP-8281

  • Fixed emulator crash caused by crypto using an old openssl version that did not cope with large file descriptors.

    Own Id: OTP-8261 Aux Id: seq11434

  • Makefile.in has been updated to use the LDFLAGS environment variable (if set). (Thanks to Davide Pesavento.)

    Own Id: OTP-8157

  • Support for Blowfish cfb64 added to crypto.

    Own Id: OTP-8096

  • New function crypto:aes_cbc_ivec

    Own Id: OTP-8141

  • The dh_compute_key sometimes returned a SharedSecret of incorrect size.

    Own Id: OTP-7674

  • Optimization for drivers by creating small binaries direct on process heap.

    Own Id: OTP-7762

  • Added new functions: dss_verify/3, rsa_verify/3, rsa_verify/4, dss_sign/2, rsa_sign/2, rsa_sign/3, rsa_public_encrypt, rsa_private_decrypt/3, rsa_private_encrypt/3, rsa_public_decrypt/3, dh_generate_key/1, dh_generate_key/2, dh_compute_key/3.

    Own Id: OTP-7545

  • Minor performance optimization.

    Own Id: OTP-7521

  • ./configure has been improved to find 64-bit OpenSSL libraries.

    Own Id: OTP-7270

  • crypto and zlib drivers improved to allow concurrent smp access.

    Own Id: OTP-7262

  • The linked in driver for the crypto application is now linked statically against the OpenSSL libraries, to avoid installation and runtime problems in connection to the OpenSSL library locations.

    Own Id: OTP-6680

  • Minor Makefile changes.

    Own Id: OTP-6689

  • It is now explicitly checked at start-up that the crypto driver is properly loaded (Thanks to Claes Wikstrom).

    Own Id: OTP-6109

  • The previously undocumented and UNSUPPORTED ssh application has been updated and documented. This release of the ssh application is still considered to be a beta release and (if necessary) there could still be changes in its API before it reaches 1.0.

    Also, more cryptographic algorithms have been added to the crypto application.


    Own Id: OTP-5631

  • Added support for RFC 3826 - The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Cipher Algorithm in the SNMP User-based Security Model.
    Martin Björklund

  • Linked in drivers in the crypto, and asn1 applications are now compiled with the -D_THREAD_SAFE and -D_REENTRANT switches on unix when the emulator has thread support enabled.

    Linked in drivers on MacOSX are not compiled with the undocumented -lbundle1.o switch anymore. Thanks to Sean Hinde who sent us a patch.

    Linked in driver in crypto, and port programs in ssl, now compiles on OSF1.

    Minor makefile improvements in runtime_tools.

    Own Id: OTP-5346

  • Corrected error handling. If the port to the driver that crypto uses is unexpectedly closed (which should not happen during normal operation of crypto), crypto will terminate immediately (rather than crashing the next time crypto is used). Also corrected build problems on Mac OS X.

    Own Id: OTP-5279

  • It was not possible in R9 to relink the crypto driver. The object file was missing as well as an example makefile. The crypto driver object file is now released with the application (installed in priv/obj). An example makefile has also been added to the priv/obj directory. The makefile serves as an example of how to relink the driver on Unix (crypto_drv.so) or Windows (crypto_drv.dll).

    Own Id: OTP-4828 Aux Id: seq8193

  • Previous versions of Crypto where delivered with statically linked binaries based on SSLeay. That is not longer the case. The current version of Crypto requires dynamically linked OpenSSL libraries that the user has to install. The library needed is libcrypto.so (Unix) or libeay32.[lib|dll] (Win32). For further details see the crypto(6) application manual page.

  • This version of Crypto uses the new DES interface of OpenSSL 0.9.7, which is not backward compatible with earlier versions of OpenSSL.

  • The functions des_ede3_cbc_encrypt/5 and des_ede3_cbc_decrypt/5 have been renamed to des3_cbc_encrypt/5 and des3_cbc_decrypt/5, respectively. The old functions have been retained (they are deprecated and not listed in the crypto(3) manual page).
  • The start of crypto failed on Windows, due to erroneous addition of a DES3 algorithm.

    Own Id: OTP-4684
    Aux Id: seq7864

  • To obtain backward compatibility with the old SSLeay package, and with earlier versions of OpenSSL, the macro OPENSSL_DES_LIBDES_COMPATIBILITY has been added to crypto_drv.c. This is of importance only for the open source version of Crypto.
  • In the manual page crypto(3) the function names md5_finish and sha_finish have been changed to md5_final and sha_final to correctly document the implementation.

    Own Id: OTP-3409

Code replacement in runtime is supported. Upgrade can be done from from version 1.1 and downgrade to version 1.1.

  • The driver part of the Crypto application has been updated to use the erl_driver header file. Version 1.1.1 requires emulator version 4.9.1 or later.

  • On Windows the crypto_drv was incorrectly linked to static run-time libraries instead of dynamic ones.

    Own Id: OTP-3240

New application.